How to Address a Ruler of an Emirate

How to Address the Ruler of Dubai?

I was asked this afternoon to draft a letter to Sheikh Mohammed of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai. How do I address the Sheikh correctly in both the address and the salutation?
— Donna 

Dear Donna:
The Ruler of each of the seven emirates that make up the UAE (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ajman, Fujairah, Ras al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al Quwain) holds a noble rank, is addressed orally as Your Highness and in writing as His Highness Sheikh (name).

You referred to him as Shiekh Mohammed of the UAE. Note that he is the Ruler of Dubai and the Prime Minister of the UAE. You will need to be specific in your form of address. Ambassadors are addressed as your excellency: Rulers as your highness. For example, if you are writing him as the Ruler of Dubai, use the following:

—-—-His Highness
—-—-Sheikh (Full Name) 
—-—-Ruler of (Name of Emirate)

——–Which looks like:
——–—-His Highness
——–—-Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum
——–—-Ruler of Dubai

—-Letter salutation:
—-—-Your Highness:

—-—-Your Highness:

— Robert Hickey

Not Finding Your Question Answered?

—-#1)  At right on desktops, at the bottom of every page on tablets and phones, is a list of all the offices, officials & topics covered on the site.

—-#2)  After checking the list and reading the posts, if you don’t see your question answered send me an e-mail. I am pretty fast at sending a reply: usually the next day or so (unless I am traveling.)  Note: I don’t have mailing or Email addresses for any of the officials and I don’t keep track of offices that exist only in history books.

—-#3)  If I think your question is of interest to others, I will post the question & answer – always changing the names and specifics.

— Robert Hickey

The Protocol School of Washington (PSOW) was founded in 1988 and offers open-enrollment, classroom-based programs where students learn to become a licensed Intercultural Etiquette and Protocol Trainer, or can earn a certificate in operational protocol by completing Protocol Officer Training. Private, on-site training is also available to provide tailored training solutions. In 2020, PSOW launched online, instructor-led training to meet the needs of students worldwide.

PSOW has offices in: Washington, DC; Columbia, SC; and Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The school is nationally accredited by the Accrediting Council for Continuing Education and Training (ACCET) and provides international protocol, cross-cultural awareness, business etiquette, and image training preparing professionals to build lasting business relationships.


Protocol and Diplomacy International – Protocol Officers Association promotes the protocol profession and raises awareness of its central role in business and diplomacy through education and networking. PDI-POA’s mission is to share the highest level of collective expertise, training, information and advice regarding accepted rules of protocol. PDI-POA is committed to facilitating communication, understanding and cooperation among individuals, governments and cultures around the globe.