Guide to Use of Names, Titles, & Forms of Address




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About the book:
HONOR & RESPECT

Abbess,
    Christian Orthodox       
Abbot,
    Christian Orthodox        
Accountant        
Acting Official       
Adjutant General     
Admiral
        

Admiral, Texas Navy   
Adventist Minister       
Alderman
        

Archbishop, Catholic        
Archbishop,
   Christian Orthodox        
Archdeacon, Episcopal        
Archimandrite        
Architect
Archpriest        
Ambassador, Goodwill
Ambassador to your country
   from a foreign country      
Ambassador of the U.S.
   by a U.S. Citizen       
Ambassador to the U.K.  
American Indian Chief        
Assemblyman
   U.S., State / or           

   Assemblywoman            
Associate Justice,
   U.S. Supreme Court          
Associate Justice of a
   State Supreme Court
Astronaut      
Attorney
         
Attorney General           
Attorney General,
       Assistant   
Attorney, U.S.         
Australian Officials    

Baron, Baroness           
British Officials,
   Royalty, Nobility     
Brother, Catholic
         
Brother,
   Christian Orthodox          
Bishop, Catholic            
Bishop,
   Christian Orthodox         
Bishop, Episcopal        
Board Member     
Boy        
Brigadier General       
Business Cards      

Canadian Officials    
Candidate    
Captain,
   USA, USAF, USMC     
Cardinal
             
Chairman
    Federal Reserve      
Chairwoman      
Chancellor      
Chaplain in the
    Armed Services        
Chaplain of Congress          

Chargé d’Affaires         
Chief Executive Officer 
Chief Judge          
Chief Justice,
      U.S. Supreme Court 
Chief Justice, of a State
      Supreme Court             

Chief of Police          
Chief of Staff     

Chief Operating
   Officer          
Child
           
Chiropractor     
City Manager
   
Clergy & Religious
    Officials     
Club Official          
Colonel, Kentucky      
Colonel, USA, USAF,
    or USMC     
Commandant       
Commissioner, Court     
Commissioner
         
Commodore of a         
      Yacht Club         
Congressman, U.S.               
Congresswoman, U.S.   
Consul and or
   Consul General   
 
Consultant      
Corporate Executive         
Councilman
    Councilwoman      
Counselor (Diplomat)      
Countess     
County Officials       
Couples     
    U.S. Military
    U.S. Officials
    Private Citizens    
    Same Sex
Curator        

Dalai Lama          
Deacon         
Dean, academic            
Dean, clergy            
Deceased Persons        
Degree, honorary      
Delegate, U.S., State
            

Dentist             
Deputy Chief of Mission      
Deputy Marshal          
Designate,
Elect,
    Pro Tempore      
Diplomats      

Director      
District Attorney
          
Doctor, Chiropractor     
Doctor of Dentistry
          
Doctor of Medicine              
Doctor, Military           
Doctor of
   Veterinary Medicine          
Doctor, Optometrist   
Doctor of Osteopathy            
Doctor, Other Disciplines     
Doctorate        
Doctorate, honorary      

Earl            
Elect, Designate
  
Pro Tempore      
Emeritus/emerita
     
Eminence     
Emperor    
Engineer    
Esquire, Esq.       
Etiquette    
Excellency           

Family     
Fiancee      
Firefighter    
First, Second,
   Third , etc .        
First Lady, Spouse
   of the President of
   the United States 
First Lady, Member
    of Her   
    White House Staff      
First Lady, Spouse
   of a U.S. Governor
   or Lt. Gov.    
First Lady, Spouse
   of a U.S. Mayor    

First Lieuten
ant
   
Flag Protocol
    
Former Officials    
Freeholder       

Gay Couple      
Geshe

General
    USA, USAF, USMC
Girl       

Goodwill Ambassador      
Governor General         
Governor, Lieuten
ant
 
Governor, Lt., Spouse   

Governor, Tribal Council          
Governor, U.S. State       
Governor, Former    
Governor
    Spouse of     
Governor's Staff,
    Member of
     
Governors, Board of 

High Commissioner    
Honorable, The
          
Honorary Ambassador       
Honorary degrees
Honorary doctorate
   
Honourable, The
   
 
   

Indian Chief         
Inspector General    
Interim Official   
Introductions       
Invitations
  
   Writing &  
   Addressing  
Invitations
   
Military:
    Writing &
    Addressing

Judge, former     
Judge of US City or

        US Count     
Judge, US Federal            
Junior, Senior,
    I, II, III, etc
.       

Justice, Associate

     Federal
     Supreme Court

Justice, Associate

     State
     Supreme Court

King     
Knight      

Late, The
   (deceased persons)
       
Lawyer      
Lesbian Couple    
Lieutenant      
Lieutenant Colonel,     
   USA, USAF, USMC      
    
Lieutenant General,
   USA, USAF, USMC      

Lieutenant Governor    
     

Ma'am          
Major
   USA, USAF, USMC  
Major General,
   USA, USAF, USMC   
Man, business
          
Man, social
         
Marquess / Marchioness
 
 
Married Women       
Marshal for a
   Judicial District, U.S. 
Mayor, U.S. City   
Mayor, Canadian City    
Mayor Pro Tempore
     
Mayor, Vice    
Medic      
Minister,
   Protestant Clergy       
Miss      
Monk,
   Christian Orthodox     
Monsignor       
Most Reverend, The        
Mother Superior
    
Mr. (Social)      
Mr. (Business)      
Mrs., Ms. (Use, Social Forms)      
Mrs. vs. Ms.     
Mr. & Mrs. / Couples   
   

Name Badges or Tags     
Nobility, British
       
Nobility, Other     
Nun, Catholic
  
Nun, Orthodox
Nurse           

Officer, Police     
Optometrist     

Pastor, Christian Clergy  
Patriarch,
   Christian Orthodox  
Patriarch,
   Ecumenical Patriarch
   of Constantinople  
People with Two Titles      
Permanent
     Representative        
Petty Officer
      
Pharmacist     
Physician
        
PhD     
Place Cards            
Police Chief
Police Officer                     
Pope, Catholic
  
Pope, Coptic
      
Postmaster General         
Post-Nominal
    Abbreviations    
Presbyter, Orthodox
   
President, corporate
President of
    College or
    University   
President of a
    Secondary
    School      
President of a
    US State Assembly 
President (current)
   of the U.S.A.          
President (former)
   of the U.S.A.     
     
President of the
    U.S.A., spouse of  
President-elect
    of the U.S.   
Priest, Catholic          
Priest,
    Christian Orthodox 
Priest, Episcopal        
Prime Minister
       
Principal      
Professionals
   & Academics         
Professor
     
Pro Tempore,
   Elect, Designate    
Psychologist      

Queen

Rabbi               
Ranger, Texas        
Representative,
   U.S., Federal           
Representative,
   U.S., State            
Reservist, Military      
Resident
    Commissioner 
Retired Military
   1. Formula For
       How to Address     
   2. Q&A / Blog On
       Use of Rank by
       Retired Military    
 

   3. Q&A / Blog on
       How to Address
       Retired Military   
Retiree        
Reverend, The
      
Right Reverend, The         

Same Sex Couple      
Salvation Army    
School Board Member
     
Second
Lieutenant        
Secretary,
   U.S. Department,
   Member of the Cabinet
Secretary
   of Defense, U.S.       
Secretary, Assistant       
Secretary General
   of the U.N.            
Senator, U.S., Federal       
Senator, U.S., State         
Senator, Canadian       
Senior, Junior,
     I, II, III, etc.         
Senior Judge 
      
Sergeant       
Sergeant at Arms
          
Seventh Day
     Adventist Minister       
Sheriff       
Sister, Catholic       
Sir       

Solicitor General      
Speaker of the U.S.
   House of
   Representatives.           
Specialist       
Spouse of the
    President of the U.S.       
Spouse of the
    Vice President
    of the U.S.           
Spouse of an
    Elected Official            
State Attorney     
Surgeon General          

Texas Ranger        
Titles & Forms of
    Address, Useless?        
Tombstones, Names on
Town Justice
     
Town Manager       
The Honorable     
Tribal Officials     
Two Titles,
    Person With

Under Secretary    
US Attorney
       
US Federal Officials
     
US State Officials     
US Municipal Officials

Venerable, The        
Veteran (not Retired)         
Veterinarian
           
Very Reverend, The         
VFW Officer/Official    
Vice Mayor       
Vice President
    of the U.S.
Spouse of the
    Vice President
   
of the U.S.
Vice President-elect
    of the U.S.      
 
Viscount and/or
   Viscountess        

Warrant Officer       
Widow
     
White House Staff    
Woman, business        
Woman, social        

Yacht Club Officer      



Robert Hickey's Blog on
Names, Titles & Forms of Address
Invitations, Introductions, Precedence, Flags, etc.


Answers to Questions From On-Line Users (like you)


Robert Hickey is Deputy Director of The Protocol School of Washington® and has been conducting protocol trainings since 1988.

Site updated by Robert Hickey on June 29, 2015

Welcome To My Website.
     I’ve been teaching at The Protocol School of Washington® for 25 years and spent a decade collecting what I've learned on names, titles and forms of address into my book that has become the standard reference on the topic.
     Since the book was published in 2008, thousands of people and organizations have acquired and use it. Browse around this site, learn how to flawlessly interact with those who are high on the pecking order, and you too can become an ambassador of honor and respect.

      -- Robert Hickey

Something You Are Looking For?
 
   If you have a question on how to address a particular office/official more than 150 are listed below and to the right and on the On-Line Guide To Forms Of Address,
   You can also browse all the previously asked questions. They are saved by category, with a list of those categories at the bottom of this page. I've answered hundreds of questions, so your question may be covered there.

Here Are The Six Most Recently Asked Questions
After they've been here, I move them to a page with related questions
A list of those topics appears at the bottom of this page.


Is a Second Son Named After a "Sr." Dad – the "III"?
          I have a son named him after his Dad.   The Dad already has an older son and he had named "Jr.".  So we named my son "lll" and the Dad is now "Sr."   Did we do this right?
          --  RR

Dear RR:

          You gave your son a unique name and that's a good thing!
          I understand that heavy-weight boxing champion George Foreman named five his sons:
                    George Foreman Jr.
                    George Foreman, III
                    George Foreman, IV
                    George Foreman, V
                    George Foreman, VI

          But, first it is useful to define two kinds of names
          1) Legal names … official names in which the government is interested.
          2) Go-by Names …. names people use informally in social situations.
          Formally …. legally … unless you go to court to change your husband's name to:
                    James Smith, Sr.
          ... his name remains as it is on his birth certificate, which I guess would be:
                    James  Smith
          Legally it’s technically it’s not necessary to add “Sr.” since each would have a different name:
                    FATHER: James Smith
                    SON: James Smith, Jr.

          But, there are families who decide to informally add “Sr.” to father’s names when there is a ‘Jr.’ …
                    GO-BY FATHER”S NAME: James Smith, Sr.
                    FORMAL SON'S NAME: James Smith, Jr.   

          To me it's not necessary, but who am I to tell them what to do?
          3) IITraditionally “II” was used when a family names a son for someone who was not the father …. like a grandfather or uncle.  The child would not be a “Jr.” since the person for whom he was named was not his “father” — and “Jr." denotes the "child of".  
                    UNCLE or GRANDFATHER, etc.: Thomas Jones
                    FORMAL CHILD’s NAME: Thomas Jones II

          4) III, IV, V, etc.:  “III” and thereafter are traditionally used for the son's of either “II” or “Jr.”
          That is what is traditional. 

           -- Robert Hickey

How to Write an Author's Name on a Book
I am designing the front cover of a book.  What is the proper way to acknowledge the author's name on the cover? In this case the author has a doctorate and is retired military.
          Colonel James G. Campbell, USA, Retired,
          Dr. James G. Campbell (Colonel, USA, Retired)
          James G. Campbell, Ph.D. (Colonel, USA, Retired)

                      -- C.B. in FLA

Dear C.B. in FLA,
Writing one’s name is not a form of address …. It is presenting your name on a work ... it is more like signing your name. And when one presents one’s name … one does not give oneself an honorific, title or rank.  On my book I did not list myself as Mr. Robert Hickey. I simply used Robert Hickey.
         On his book It Worked for Me: In Life and Leadership, Colin Powell simply listed his name as Colin Powell.  See below.
        But on the book's cover Colin Powell followed tradition and presents just his name. He lists his rank, retired status, degrees, honors, awards, etc. elsewhere (e.g., in his biography on the dust jacket's back flap).]  There are plenty of places to include everything.
        Of course, you see some with ranks wanting to include their rank on a book's cover.  It would not be my recommendation, but if they insist ... here's what to do:
        Regarding the military: You have seen this form of a retired officer's name: (Rank) (Full Name), (Branch of Service), (Retired) which looks like Colonel James G. Campbell, USA, Retired. “USA” and “Retired” ARE included on official documents — e.g., when the Pentagon writes him/her with regard to his/her service. So unless their book is an official action of a retired officer, then branch of service and retired would not be included.  
        Authors with ranks would more appropriately use the social form of their name which is:
                   (Rank) (Full Name)
                   Colonel John G. Campbell

                   Judge John G. Campbell

                   Pastor John G. Campbell

        For military, no branch of service, no reference to 'retired'.  Dr. is never used with a military rank. It's either/or, never both.
        For those addressed as The Honorable or The Reverend .... these are never used when presenting one's own name ... so neither would be on a book cover.
           -- Robert Hickey



How to Recognize a Medal Honor Recipient's Spouse When the Medal of Honor Recipient Is Not Present?
Attending our banquet is the widow of a MOH recipient from the Viet Nam era. My plans are to recognize her presence during our banquet,  Is there any other recognition that I should give her?
     -- BP in Boston

Dear BP,
       Courtesies due a "person" are related to the "rank" of that person. Spouses are not due courtesies due to their ranked spouse.  But -- they may experience the courtesies when:
           1) they accompany the ranked person or
           2) when they attend an event representing that person.
      So, for example, the spouse of a current President of the United States (POTUS) is not due any specified courtesies solely due to her being "the First Lady".  Courtesies given is given to her as a courtesy to the POTUS.  
      Courtesies extended to a spouse include some -- but not all -- provided to the ranked person.  Thus a current solo First Lady might well be given the POTUS's seat and place on the program (order of when she speaks). But she would not get 'Hail to the Chief' played. That would be reserved for the POTUS.
      So … if we consider this to be similar situation … and you consider to to be representing her MOH spouse, I'd say she'd get the seat, order among introductions, and access to any special events, escorting, amenities, that her ranked spouse would get … but not more personal "marks of status" due her deceased husband if he had been present.
    --- Robert Hickey

How to Address Enlisted Personnel?
    I am engaged to a member of the Marine Corps and have invitations that I'm trying to address to active duty enlisted personnel. I have a couple of guests for whom I am unsure how to address their outer envelopes. I know that enlisted Navy personnel have ranks (such as PO2) instead of an actual rank, but do not know how you use this on the invitation.
        -- Katie (and Todd)

Dear Katie (and Todd),
    I cover each of the branches of service in my book's chapter on U.S. Armed Services. Both officers and enlisted personnel are addressed the same way on social correspondence: {Rank/Rating} + {Full Name}.
    The most formal way to address an envelope is to do so without abbreviations, spelling out every word.:
           Petty Officer Second Class (Full Name)
              Address
    A formal joint form of address would be to give the service member his/her own line on a line by itself and to put their guest on the next line:
           Petty Officer Second Class (Full Name)
                and Mrs. (Surname)
                   Address
    Or if the guest is a woman, and their guest is a man:
           Petty Officer Second Class (Full Name)
              and Mr. (Full Name)
                   Address

    One more thing: You will see the 'service specific' abbreviations used (especially within the Armed Services) but technically they are less formal.:
           PO2 (Full Name)
               Address
   
Using the abbreviations can be useful when a name gets very long and space becomes an issue.
    What about their branch of service?
    USA/USMC/USN/USCG (the post-nominal abbreviation for the branch of service) are not included after a name on social correspondence. BUT when a letter is to the active-duty personnel is related to their service the formula is
{Rank/Rating} + {Full Name}, + {Abbreviation for branch of service}.
            -- Robert Hickey

What is The Precedence of a Guest Who is a Medal of Honor Recipient?
I gave a protocol briefing to colleagues in Chicago yesterday, including order of precedence.  I was asked the question, Where in precedence order would a Medal of Honor recipient be seated?  The event is not in his honor, he is an attendee.  Now that I think about it, I should have asked what type of event it is and who the other attendees are. Would you need to know that information before you can answer the question?
      I've looked through your book
, but can't find a reference to this situation.
            --- Sue in St. Lou

Dear Sue:
    If the recipient of a Medal of Honor is a guest and not part of the program ... he or she would be seated by the precedence accorded by their office: E.g., if an officer in the armed services, the precedence would be that accorded his or her rank, then if there were others of equal rank, by their dates of service.
    Holders of national or military honors and decorations -- Nobel and Pulitzer prize winners -- Oscars winners -- quarterbacks of Super Bowl Champion teams -- are not listed on any general-purpose precedence list. That's why you didn't find any in the "Precedence List" that appears in my book.
    If he or she is an honored guest -- e.g., at an event honoring Medal of Honor recipients -- then he or she gets a seat related to his or her function at the ceremony. He or she is seated in precedence order within their group of recipients -- likely to be by "date of their award".

          -- Robert Hickey

       I must take a small exception to your answer about saluting a Medal of Honor recipient.  I was taught, when I entered the Marine Corps, in 1965, that a a recipient of the Medal of Honor was saluted, regardless of his/her rank, first.  And in actuality you were not saluting the person, but the Medal.  I realize that this was over 40 years ago. However, I do not think that this custom has changed.
            --- Lee S., Semper Fi!

    To get a current view I asked four current armed services protocol officers "Is any Medal of Honor recipient is saluted first ... even it he is in the company of a higher ranking officer .... even an O-10 General."  All said my post was correct, but here is more thoughtful reply from Major Elgin Young, USAF that was better than I had expressed. Thank you Elgin.
     Hope all is well.  Thank you for your consideration in sending me this question.  It is a very good one, and actually a bit complicated, and of course dependent upon the situation.  Your response in your blog was spot on. The quick answer is to your question for me is, no, that is not true.
      Medal of Honor recipients are saluted solely as a matter of respect, unless they are/were an officer, in that case it is a requirement.  There is no requirement or regulation stating that MoH recipients are saluted or rendered honors over a General Officer.  If the MoH is participating in a ceremony, it will be either as a guest of honor, guest reviewing official or just an honored guest, in either case that person will be acknowledged at some point during the ceremony and honors rendered.  But that will not occur before "ruffles and flourishes" due a General Officer. 
     If you encounter an MoH recipient and a General officer in passing, and the situation merits (for Marines, you are outdoors and in uniform or under arms), regulations require you to salute the General first and then the MoH recipient. 
     Now, the retired Marine that wrote to you is not absolutely incorrect or wrong.  Saluting an officer is required by regulation, but that requirement is based out of respect for the rank (and hopefully for the person as well).  So, in a given situation like the encounter in passing mentioned above, for that individual rendering the salute, it may also be his/her personal preference whom he/she salutes first.  In either case, both the General and the MoH recipient receive their salute out of respect, and the General should not feel slighted in the least.
     If I were the person rendering the salute in that situation, I would indeed salute the MoH recipient first, thank him for his selfless service, then salute the General and render the appropriate greeting.
      Hope this answers your question.
-- VR, Elgin
          -- Robert Hickey

How to Use The Honorable?
 
        I believe Honorable should be included as a title/rank on invitations, letters and envelopes.  But is it proper or acceptable at any time to refer to a judge as Honorable John Q. Smith, Honorable Judge John Q. Smith or Hon. John Q. Smith, e.g., in a list of Judges?
        -- S.B. a the US Bankruptcy Court

       My secretary recently drafted a letter of recommendation for a former employee from me and included the title the Honorable with my name, which others use when introducing or addressing me – an elected Tax Collector.  I have never called myself the Honorable and it seems improper at the end of a letter.  Am I correct that the title Honorable should be used by persons addressing me but not by me when signing my own name?
        -- SR, Tex Collector

       I am a doctor and just recently – an elected Federal official.  Am I correctly listed in a program as  The Honorable Dr. (Full Name)?
        --  JMC in Virginia


Dear SB & SR, and JMC :
        The correct form is The Honorable (Full Name) It is not formally correct to refer to to anyone as simply Honorable or Hon.  You see those shortened versions but, people really like there names in full, so unless you are short on space or ink for your printer, give them their full name.
        One never uses the
The Honorable when saying or writing one's own name. So – never as the host on an invitation, never when signing one's name, and never when introducing yourself. 
       If the guest of honor is
the Honorable, and their name is being included on the invitation, the host can list their guest as the Honorable (Full Name) since the name is a reference to another person, not that person writing their own name.
       Any guest addressed as the Honorable, should be the Honorable (Full Name) on their invitation's outside envelope.
       The Honorable, is not combined with other honorifics, ranks or titles in the USA.  So none of these is correct: The Honorable Dr. (Name), The Honorable Senator (Name), The Honorable Judge (Name), The Honorable Mayor (Name) or The Honorable General (Name) etc.
      
This is the same pattern as for The Reverend, His/Her Excellency'  ... even His/Her Highness .... none are used reflexively.
         -- Robert Hickey

How to Address a Two Pastors?
    What is the proper way to address a letter to my pastor and his wife is also a pastor? Thank you in advance.

 
         -- Susan Wise

Dear Ms. Wise:
     I cover how to address two pastors in Chapter Nine: Joint Forms of Address.
    
You didn't mention if they both use the same last name ... so I will assume the do.
    And I will also assume you address each as Pastor (surname) in conversation rather than Dr., Father, or something else.
    That said ... on the envelope ... address it to "your pastor" first ... and put the name of his or her spouse on the second line:
        The Reverend Clinton Jones
            and The Reverend Susan Jones
                (address)

    On the salutation to both use:
        Dear Pastors Jones,

      -- Robert Hickey

How to Address a Military Officer and His/Her Spouse?
    If you are addressing an envelope to Joe Schmo and his wife and he’s a 2nd Lieutenant in the USMC, how should it read?
         --- Marilyn Huddleston

   How do I address an envelope to 2nd Lieutenant in the USN and his wife. She kept her maiden name.
         --- David Kramer

Dear Ms. Huddleston & Mr. Kramer:
  
  I cover this in Chapter 9: Joint Forms of Address.
    
The envelope should read:
           Second Lieutenant Joseph Schmo
     
            and Mrs. Schmo
                        (street)
                              (state and ZIP code)
      If she uses a different surname it should read:
           Second Lieutenant Joseph Schmo
     
            and Ms. (Her First and Last Name)
                        (street)
                              (state and ZIP code)
      If the spouse is a man, it should read:
           Second Lieutenant Jennifer Schmo
     
            and Mr. (His First and Last Name)
                        (street)
                              (state and ZIP code)

      1) The member of the armed services is listed first (people with ranks are listed before people without ranks).
Use of and between their names (before the spouse's name) implies they are married.
      2) On social correspondence branch of service -- USMC or USN -- is not included. On an official letter to the Second Lieutenant you would include branch of service.
      3) Formally you don't break up a rank + name.  Second Lieutenant and Mrs. Joseph Schmo is frowned on in the armed services. I've seen it on envelopes addressed by civilians, but it not the best form. People with ranks get their name on a line by itself, so put the spouse's name on the next line.
      4) if you are interested in the use of Mrs. vs. Ms. for wives, I have several postings on that issue.

           -- Robert Hickey

Can I List Deceased Officials as Emeritus?
         I am the president of a board. One of our Advisory Board members passed away, but I would like to keep his name on our organizational roster. How shall I title him? Board Member Emeritus?
        -- SD

       We list the names of our retired directors on our company letterhead under the heading Directors Emeritus.  Some of those listed have now passed away. Do we simply put the years they lived after their names (1935-2010)?
         -- MC

       The senior deacon in our congregation is recently deceased.  Can the term Deacon Emeritus be appropriately used in this situation?
         -- DH

Dear SD, MC & DH,
       Emeritus means they no longer work with you (e.g. they are retired) but continue to have a relationship with the organization.
       So deceased official/s/persons are no longer emeritus/emerita.
       Often organizations create a new group  … Founders for example  …and list the people they want to continue to acknowledge by their span of service: (Full Name), 1998-2008. This method does not mention that they are dead, just that they were an official / important person to the organization at one time.  If you include their span of life after their name is confirms they are deceased -- if that is important for you to communicate.
       Setting up this sort of new category is a good thing for organizations to do. It often comes up when they have someone special they want to remember … but it's good to think of these things with a broad view of how it will work now and if it will work when the next important person retires and or dies.
       -- Robert Hickey
 

When To Use Dr. (Name)? 
And When To Use (Name), PhD?

         My daughter is receiving her PhD and will be teaching at a university.  I would like to give her a name plate for her desk. Should it be Dr. (Full Name) or (Full Name, PhD)?
              --  AP

Dear AP,
         (Full Name), PhD is the official form of her name. You will use on the envelope, or in the address block of a letter, when you write to her with regard to her professional pursuits. This is the form they will use at her university when they list her among the faculty.
         Dr. (Full Name) is the social form of her name. You will use when you write her name on a personal letter's envelope sent to her home.  This is the form everyone will use on the envelope when they send her a birthday or holiday card.
         Dr. (Surname) is the conversational form of her name.  Use it both officially and socially in a letter's salutation as well as in conversation.
         So for a office name plate use (Full Name), PhD  
                  -- Robert Hickey

Site updated by Robert Hickey on June 29, 2015

And finally, from a rather challenging internet surfer:
 

What Authority Do You Have?
Dear Mr. Hickey:
What authority do you have for your answers
?
         --- Mary Louise Timmons

Dear Ms. Timmons:
    I'm not sure "what authority I have" but I've been teaching at The Protocol School of Washington® since 1988.
    After researching with the hierarchies of the officials, and answering questions on forms of address for so long, I guess I've gotten good at it!  What I've learned I've put in my book -- which I am pleased to say is used at lots of serious places: See http://www.formsofaddress.info/Collections.html. 

          -- Robert Hickey


Cartoon by Michael Diffee.
From The New Yorker, Volume LXXXV, Number 28, September 14, 2009.
Copyright c. 2009 Conde Nast Publications. All rights reserved.

USE OF NAMES & HONORIFICS   
Mr., Miss, Jr., III, & Names        
Married Women       
Deceased Persons         
People with Two Titles
Post-Nominal Abbreviations and Initials         
Sequence Post-Nominal Abbreviations: Sr., Jr., etc.    
 
Couples: Private Citizens / Joint Forms of Address 
Couples: U.S. Military / Joint Forms of Address     
Couples: U.S. Officials / Joint Forms of Address      

USE OF SPECIFIC OFFICIAL TITLES        
Former Officials            
Professionals and Academics        

United States Federal Officials, Currently In Office             
United States State Officials, Currently In Office              
United States Municipal Officials, Currently In Office             
       All About The Honorable with U.S. Officials         
       Former United States Officials of all types             
United States Armed Services
       Addressing Active Duty Personnel              
       Addressing Retired Personnel      
       Use of Rank by Retired Personnel      
       Use of Rank by Veterans      

Tribal Officials 
           
Clergy and Religious Officials           
Canadian Officials         
Australian Officials          
British Officials, Royalty, and Nobility        
Diplomats and International Representatives
           
Foreign National Officials and Nobility        

SPECIFIC SITUATIONS
Author's Name of a Book       
Business Cards
      
Couples        
Etiquette
            
Flags and Anthem Protocol             
Introductions
            
Invitations: Writing & Addressing
        
Invitations: Just Armed Service Personnel        
Name Badges & Tags            
Names on Programs, Signs, & Lists            
Naming a Building or Road            
Place Cards            

Plaques, Awards, Diplomas, Certificates    
Precedence: Ordering Officials 
         
Thank You Notes             
Tombstones      




     Back to Main Page of the Robert Hickey's BLOG 

Robert Hickey is the author of Honor & Respect:
The Official Guide to Names, Titles, and Forms of Address
Published by The Protocol School of Washington®
Foreword by Pamela Eyring

Copyright © 2015 Robert Hickey.     All Rights Reserved.
Book Photo: Marc Goodman.





All information on www.formsofaddress.info is copyright © 2015 by Robert Hickey.
The Protocol School of Washington® is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Honor & Respect is dedicated to Dorothea Johnson, Founder of The Protocol School of Washington®